Keto vs. Paleo vs. Atkins: Paleo and Atkins are popular diets that appear similar to a ketogenic diet because they
include many of the same foods and have overlapping benefits. However, each diet has its
own premise and protocols that make it different from a ketogenic diet. Your practitioner
recommended the ketogenic diet based on your personal health goals.
HISTORY OF THE KETOGENIC DIET
- Originated in the 1920s after starvation studies discovered that after several days without food seizure activity stopped.
- Then discovered that the same results could be produced by introducing an extremely low carbohydrate diet (<20g/day) to induce ketosis.
- Was initially used to treat epilepsy.
- Diet lost popularity with the discovery of anticonvulsants.
TYPES OF KETOGENIC DIETS
The standard Ketogenic diet is traditionally 75-80% Fat, 15-20% Protein and 5% Carbohydrate.
Various adaptations of the ketogenic diet are now used since the Keto Diet became so popular.
- Cyclical (5 days Keto then 2 higher carbohydrate days)
- Targeted (Standard Keto but with carbohydrates surrounding workouts)
- High Protein Keto (60%fat, 35% protein, 5%carbohydrate)
- Fad Diets ( Atkins, Modified Atkins, Paleo, Dr. Poon ,etc)
Note: Targeted and High Protein Keto are designed more for athletes and body builders
KETO PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (HOW KETO WORKS)
Ketosis can be induced either through fasting or drastically reducing ones carbohydrate intake. Ketosis is our bodies survival mechanism during periods of starvation.
Lack of Carbohydrate leads to depleted glycogen stores which prevent oxaloacetate (made primarily from glucose) from normal fat oxidation in the Krebs Cycle. After 3-4 days of fasting or extremely low carbohydrate intake our body enters ketosis and people experience “brain fog” or “keto brain”.
PROS OF THE KETO DIET
- Better Blood sugar control and weight loss
- Better blood profile
- Reduce blood pressure
- Increased HDL
- Can be very effective with proper adherence
- More flavorful than many traditional diets
- Increased satiety
- Increased leptin and insulin sensitivity
*note:Most of these positive side effects can all be side effects of weight loss in general.
CONS OF THE KETO DIET
- Extremely restrictive
- Difficult to travel with
- Possible social isolation
- Only a temporary solution (not a long term diet
- Potential side effects (Ie: disordered eating, false food beliefs)
- Medical complications (re-feeding syndrome)
- GI issues (constipation/diarrhea)
- Possible Nutrient Deficiencies
*note: Ketogenic Diet should really be considered a last resort!
SIDE EFFECTS OF KETO:
SIDE EFFECTS OF KETO (ADAPTATION PERIOD) :
- Decreased Cognitive Function
- Bad Breath
- Constipation or Diarrhea
- Vitamin/Mineral Deficiencies
SIDE EFFECTS OF KETO (LONG TERM) :
- Bad breath
- Micronutrient Deficiencies
- Loss of lean muscle mass
Long term research data is still lacking. Keto is not a cure all for everyone and everything, should still be considered as a “Last Resort” diet after other less restrictive nutrition interventions have been exhausted. There can be definite risks associated with ketogenic Diets. Careful monitoring by a Primary Care Physician and Dietitian is extremely important. Ketogenic Diets are therapeutic Diets NOT meant to be followed LONG TERM!!!
HISTORY OF THE PALEO DIET
One of the most popular diets of late the Paleo diet is actually hundreds of thousands of years old. Nicknamed the Caveman Diet, this diet focuses primarily on the foods that our
Paleolithic ancestors ate.
Those who advocate the Paleo diet swear by its many health benefits, from weight loss to
increased energy and clearer skin. However, this primal diet receives mixed reviews from
nutritionists and scientific research alike. The Paleo diet is based on two central ideas. We adapted to eat particular kinds of foods. To stay healthy, strong, and fit, avoid the chronic diseases of modernity we need to eat like our ancestors. Our oldest cousins, the earliest primates, lived more than 60 million years ago. And, just like most primates today, they subsisted mainly on fruit, leaves, and insects.
Foods To Avoid On Paleo Diet
The Paleo diet avoids sugar, grains, dairy, legumes, processed foods, and vegetable oils. Those who follow a strict Paleo diet also avoid alcohol and potatoes.
Since our Paleolithic ancestors were hunter-gatherers, and not farmers, all wheat, grains, and dairy are avoided. Although dairy is in the “grey zone” of the Paleo diet, some allow organic, grass-fed, or even raw dairy.
All forms of refined sugar are ditched from the Paleo diet. No soda, candy, baked goods, fruit juices, or desserts are allowed. Besides the Paleo diet being gluten and wheat-free, it is also free from all grains. This includes spelt, rye, barley, and rice. Pseudo-grains such as quinoa, buckwheat, and amaranth are also avoided.
Why You Should Avoid Those Foods
According to the CDC, more than 35 percent of all American adults are obese.
Obesity leads to a higher risk of many diseases like some cancers, heart disease,
type 2 diabetes, and stroke. Obesity can be caused by diets high in processed
foods, diets too high in processed carbohydrates, and too high in sugar. Many
people suffer from health problems associated with inflammaBon and food
Legumes can cause people to suffer from inflammaBon and digesBve upset. If
you’re one of those people, you definitely need to avoid them. Even if you don’t
suffer from side effects, it’s likely that your body is experiencing inflammaBon, so
it’s best to avoid legumes. Safe legumes are peas and green beans. Unsafe
legumes are soy, peanuts, and beans like kidney beans, Romano beans, etc.
Grains (wheat, barley, and rye) contain lecBns and gluten. LecBns are toxins that a
plant develops to protect itself against consumpBon so that the plant may
reproduce. These lecBns can cause damage to the gastrointesBnal tract and also
pull vitamins from the intesBnes, prevenBng absorpBon of valuable
Proteins in the wheat, like gluten, can cause a whole assortment of problems for
some people. You’ve probably heard of celiac disease, where the person is allergic
to the gluten. These people suffer from abdominal pain or discomfort, bloaBng,
and diarrhea when they eat gluten.
Did you know there are non-celiac gluten intolerances as well? These people may
suffer from headaches, joint pain, mood disorders, and more, all because of
Other grains like rice, oats, and corn may also be contaminated with gluten at the
Perhaps the scariest part is that a large majority of people who are gluten
intolerant don’t even know it; they have no outward symptoms, yet their insides
are riddled with inflammaBon and they are on the fast-track to ill-health, all
without knowing it.
One major reason to avoid grains is because they are very high in processed
carbohydrates. Your body turns carbs into glucose, which gets stored to be used
for energy. If you don’t use those glucose stores, that glucose is stored as fat.
Processed sugars are extremely high in glucose as well.
The CDC says that sugars added to foods has been linked to a lowered level of
essenBal micronutrients and an increase in body weight.
Processed oils and parBally-hydrogenated and hydrogenated vegetable oils (also
called trans fat) are simply not good for you. They cause inflammaBon and
unhealthy levels of Omega 6 compared to Omega 3. Oils to avoid are all types of
margarine, soybean oil, canola oil, “vegetable” oil, corn oil, and sunflower/
Most processed foods have at least one of these types of oils.
A lot of people have problems eaBng dairy products. If you’re not one of those
people, and you have access to raw milk, go for it. Raw milk (when it comes from a
good, trusted source) is safe, delicious, and healthy.
PROS OF THE PALEO DIET
- Reducing your consumption of high calorie foods will reduce your calorie intake and help you to lose weight.
- The diet is simple and doesn’t involve calorie-counting. some plans go by “80/20” rule, whereby you’ll get 99% of the benefits of the paleo diet if you adhere to it 80% of the time.
- This flexibility can make the diet easier to stick to so you are more likely to be successful
CONS OF THE PALEO DIET
- There are no accurate records of the diet of our Stone Age ancestors, so the paleo diet is largely based on an educated guess and its health claims lack scientific evidence.
- Most versions of the diet encourage large amounts of meat, which runs counter to current health advice on meat consumption.
- Mary versions ban dairy products and wholegrain, which from part of a healthy, balanced diet. Like all high-protein diets, the paleo can expensive, depending on your choice of meat cuts. it’s impossible to follow without eating meat, seafood or eggs, so it’s not one for vegetarians!
Successful diets for weight loss can emphasize a range of fat and carb intakes.
These diets can be made with foods that reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.
Ongoing counseling is important to achieve and maintain weight loss for all types of diets.
Successful diets for weight loss can be adapted to individual patients’ personal and cultural preferences to achieve long-term success.
HISTORY OF THE ATKINS DIET
Lose weight! Increase energy! Look great! I will show you how it’s done.
Not only that, it will show you how to change your life once and for all. Most of you will have heard people say it’s the most effective weight loss plan they’ve tried. It is!
If you’re like many people, you’ve been through the weight loss wars. Name it and you’ve probably tried it, whether it’s a low-fat diet, a food-combining diet, the grapefruit diet, liquid fasts, other fad diets and on and on. You’ve learned how to count calories, but ultimately with no success. Even if you lost weight, you were often hungry and always felt deprived. Then when you went back to your old way of eating, those pounds crept back, often joined by a few more.
If this scenario sounds all too familiar, I have a solution that will help end the game of yo-yo dieting once and for all. Instead, I’ll help you adopt a permanent way of eating that:
• lets you lose weight without counting calories.
• makes you feel and look better.
• naturally re-energizes you.
• keeps lost pounds off forever with a new lifetime nutritional approach that includes rich, delicious foods.
But in addition to weight loss, there is an even more important benefit: The nutritional approach you’ll learn about here is also a revolutionary method for living a long, healthy life. I want my readers to say: “I knew I’d lose weight, but I never realized I would feel so much healthier.”
The typical modem American diet-or, as I sometimes call it, the high-sugar horrors-makes you fat. In the short term, it’s also a sure road to daily misery, making you irritable and tired during the day and sleepless at night. In the long term, it leads grimly on toward heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and a host of other catastrophes.
What I’m going to show you is not just a way to lose weight, but a way to eat for the rest of your life so you can be slim and healthy and stay that way. For too many people, the word diet implies not an approach to eating for a lifetime, but a two-months-on, ten-months-off weight loss game that they play with themselves-year after year. I believe this so strongly that from now on I’ll speak not of the Atkins Diet, but of the Atkins Nutritional Approach or “doing Atkins” or even just “Atkins.” It’s a shorthand that others have been using, so I’m going to start using it, too.
The Atkins Nutritional Approach will make you healthy because it is different from the typical American way of eating. Simply put, you avoid the negative consequences of too much carbohydrate intake, all of which can be attributed to too much insulin release in your body. Let me assure you that eating meat, fish and fowl isn’t a health hardship-it’s what humans have eaten for millions of years. People ate much the same way in the nineteenth century. They were beef and pork eaters and their use of butter and eggs was unrestricted. In fact, the two most widely consumed fats of all were lard and beef tallow.
In the crucial sixty-year time span between 1910 and 1970, when coronary heart disease escalated from a yet-to-be-recognized problem to the killer of more than half the population, this is what happened to America’s diet: The intake of animal fat and butter actually dropped a little, while the intake of cholesterol was not changed. Meanwhile, the intake of refined carbohydrates (mainly sugar, corn syrup and white flour) escalated by sixty percent 68 (See the graphs).
To understand how the human diet in most of the world’s developed countries has changed so drastically in the last century, let’s take a short historical detour. Even before the onset of agriculture, the human animal was able, for millions of years, to remain strong and healthy in conditions of often savage deprivation by eating the fish and animals that scampered and swam around him, and the fruits and vegetables and berries that grew nearby. Without medicine, without expertise, without insulated housing or reliable heating, our species nonetheless survived. The fact that the dietary side of our primitive lifestyle was enormously healthy undoubtedly helped us.
So what has caused the avalanche of degenerative diseases that now threaten the health of our species? Two hundred years ago the average person ate less than 10 pounds of sugar a year, and white flour was used much less commonly. About a hundred and ten years ago the lid blew off the sugar canister. In the 1890s, the craze for cola beverages swept the nation-which means that when we were thirsty and craved water, we got sugar as well. To make matters worse, the mills that could refine wheat into white, nutritionally barren flour were developed in the same decade.
That was bad enough. But what’s worse, once that flour met up with sweetness and saltiness, the junk food industry was off and running.
Eating the Atkins Way Must Have Special Advantages
You bet it does. Here are six reasons why doing Atkins works:
1. As I’ve just said, it mobilizes more fat for use as energy than any diet you have ever encountered. In a clinical setting and countless testimonials, Atkins has repeatedly been proven to take off more fat than other programs when an equal number of calories is consumed. This incredible advantage has been researched and validated.
2. The controlled carbohydrate nutritional approach is not one of deprivation. Sheer hunger is the main reason for the failure of most weight loss efforts. A lifetime eating plan needs to be palatable, pleasant and filling. You will have to abandon sugar and other refined carbohydrates such as white flour. But most people find that once they shake off the sugar addiction, they feel no strong desire to go back to it. For them, a nutritional approach that allows them to eat a vast variety of meat and fish and salads and vegetables prepared in the most appetizing manner-i.e., with butter and cream and spices and herbs-is anything but austere. Eating Atkins-style is a food lover’s dream come true-luxurious, healthy and varied.
3. Atkins is the easiest way to maintain weight loss. The trouble with losing weight on a low-calorie/low-fat diet or on a liquid-protein diet is that the maintenance program is so very different from the weight loss program. So when you go back to your former way of eating, the pounds return with astonishing speed because you are unprepared for maintenance.
There are sound physiological reasons for this. When you restrict the number of calories you eat, your metabolism shifts into a survival mode, meaning it slows down to conserve energy. When you go back to a higher-calorie diet-as you inevitably must-your body is still in its mode of burning calories slowly. So it becomes extremely hard to continue or maintain weight loss.
Success at maintaining weight loss is the great plus while doing Atkins. What most people know about it is that you can usually lose a lot of weight rapidly. And you probably can. But the key point is that the weight doesn’t return. One of the reasons is that it doesn’t create a big difference in the number of calories you eat during the weight loss and weight maintenance phases.
The Atkins Nutritional Approach is actually a continuum of four phases that transition seamlessly from one to the next. Phase 1, known as Induction, crashes you through most weight loss barriers and will generally introduce even the most metabolically resistant person to weight reduction. Phase 2, Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL), will carry you smoothly toward your goal. Phase 3, Pre-Maintenance, eases you toward adopting permanently a new, healthier way of eating that, with a modest degree of diligence on your part, will allow you to stay slim forever. Phase 4, Lifetime Maintenance, is the game plan that will keep those banished pounds at bay for the rest of your days.
Let me state one crucial fact that you should always keep in mind: For people who comply with all four phases of Atkins, failure to maintain weight loss is very rare.
4. Not only does Atkins not deprive you of the pleasure of eating, it energizes you and makes you feel just plain good. And those two things are definitely factors in keeping the weight off, because few people are willing to go back to feeling lousy once they’ve experienced the joys of feeling good. As a matter of fact, for about half the patients I see, the most compelling reason they continue to do Atkins is that they feel noticeably worse if they stop the program.
Plus, when you are full of energy, you are more inclined to exercise, enhancing weight loss and replacing fat tissue with muscle, which will also help you cut inches from your measurements. People will see the change in you, enhancing your sense of accomplishment and self-respect.
5. The plan is healthy. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that controlling carbohydrate intake results in improved blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, moderation of blood-sugar levels and reduction of blood pressure. All these indicators result in reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. And, incidentally, in my forty years of practice, I’ve yet to see a single study that has shown that a high-protein diet causes kidney problems.
In addition, Atkins can effectively and quickly make a positive impact on many of the most common annoyances that patients reveal in the privacy of their doctor’s office. In all my years of practice, I’ve heard and seen it all: fatigue, irritability, depression, trouble concentrating, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, joint and muscle aches, heartburn, colitis, premenstrual syndrome, water retention and bloating. For the lion’s share of patients, Atkins is a specific prescription against such ills.
6. Atkins works because, as an increasing body of scientific evidence shows, it corrects the basic factor that controls obesity and influences risk factors for certain illnesses. That factor is excessive levels of insulin. An essential hormone, insulin governs the basic mechanism by which the body lays on fat. When found in excessively high levels-we medical folk call that state hyperinsulinism-insulin vigorously promotes the development of diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension. More recently, it has also been linked to increased risk of breast cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
And so the Atkins approach finds itself at the center of health planning for a long and vigorous life.
PROS OF ATKINS DIET
- Great for carnivores because of the high meat content.
- Allow to eat cream whereas in other diets you are restricted.
- Eliminates refined carbohydrates like sugar, flour.
- Creates a state called ketosis, in which your body burns fat as fuel.
- Controls insulin release, which may be beneficial at staving off type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
CONS OF ATKINS DIET
- Does not provide energy in the form of carbohydrates.
- High amounts of protein can cause issues in the kidneys.
- High levels of fat can cause heart disease or strokes.
- Will regain weight once carbohydrates are reintroduced.
- In the initial phase most weight loss is due to water loss.
The difference between Keto diet/Paleo diet/Atkins diet:
|Philosophy||Restricting carbs and|
sugar; eating real
|Eating real ancestral|
|Fats & Oils||✓||✓||Limited|
|Nuts & Seeds||✓||✓||✓|
|Beans & Legumes||Limited||X||✓|
|Sugar Substitute||Stevia, monkfruit||Raw honey, maple|
|Artificial sweeteners are allowed|
|Fats||High (70%)||Moderate (40%)†||Depends on the
|Proteins||Moderate (20%)||Moderate (40%)†||Depends on the
|Carbohydrates||Low (10%)||Low (20%)†||Depends on the
While there are many different types of diets out there, the best one is the one that
you can follow long-term and also achieve success with.
In the graph below, a well-formulated ketogenic diet contains between 3-20% of
calories coming from carbs and 10-30% of calories coming from protein with the
remainder of calories coming from dietary fat. The range of carbohydrate, proteins,
and fat are influenced by your total calorie requirements and also your overall health
goals determined by your health care practitoner. Other diets typically contain more
carbohydrates or less fat.
Well-Formulated Ketogenic Diet (WFKD)12